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The U.S. Constitution

In the Constitution, electoral College elects the President, and there was a system of checks and balances and a system of federal courts.
In the Constitution, there were a system of federal courts, a supreme court and 2 Houses of Congress.
A majority in each house must pass a bill and the president must sign it before it becomes law.
The Constitution had power over states and individuals.
It created both a system of government shared by the nation and its states. 
According to the Constitution, the only way to amend the Constitution was by passing it in both houses and 2/3 of the state legislatures.
The only way to amend the constitution was by having 3/4 of the state legislatures at a Constitutional Convention.
The U.S. Constitution gave the government power to raise an army, to tax, and to control trade.
The Bill of Rights was made up of the first 10 amendments.

The Articles of Confederation

In the Articles of Conderderation, there were no executive or judicial branches.
According to the Articles of Confederation, each state had one vote, and only the states had a system of court.
To decide on a president to preside over the Congress, they elected their own president.
In order to pass a law, 9/13 states needed to pass it, and the Articles of Confederation only had power to control the states.
To amend the Constitution, every state had to agree, and there was no power to raise an army in the Articles of Confederation.
In the Articles of Confederation, states were asked to send soldiers to make up the army.
There was also no power to tax and no Bill of Rights.
In the Articles of Confederation, the government could only ask the states for money, and there was no power to control trade going on between states or with other nations.
Basically, the Articles of Confederation had everything that we don't have today.

Chart-If there is a green check mark, it is included in that document. A red x means it was not included.